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Precision Medicine

Zakesy Biotech Sdn. Bhd. explore the potentials of pharmacogenomics and personalised medicine to identify the right drugs for the right patients. Pharmacogenomics allow us to get a better understanding on the use of drugs based on one’s unique genetic makeup.

We took the lead in realizing the dream of pharmacogenomics-based personalised medicine by developing pharmacodiagnostic kits which determine the genetic variations that are known to influence patients’ response to various clinical important drugs.

1. HLA-A*31:01 AND HLA-B*15:02

Genotyping assays to detect HLA-B*15:02 variant responsible for the development of fatal drug-induced skin reactions such as Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), whilst HLA-A*31:01 is the variant related to increased risks for rashes. Individuals who carry these genetic variants are at increased risk of the adverse skin reaction when drugs such as carbamazepine and phenytoin are consumed. To prevent adverse drug reactions, individuals of Asian ancestry are recommended to be genotyped for HLA-B*1502 and HLA-A*31:01.

2. CYP2C19

A genotyping assay to detect CYP2C19 variants helps to evaluate the risk for clopidogrel resistance. Clopidogrel is a medication used to prevent harmful blood clots from developing in people who are at risk of a heart attack or stroke.

3. CYP2C9

A genotyping assay to detect CYP2C9 variants which are responsible for the variability of drug response in patient treated with warfarin, anti-diabetics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Knowing the genetic variants help to predict the right drug to the right patients to achieve the optimum therapeutic effects and reduce avoidable adverse drug reaction or toxicity.


A genotyping assay to determine VKORC1 variants that affect the dosing requirement of warfarin, which is an anticoagulant drug. Patients with the defective alleles are at increased risks of bleeding or warfarin resistance.

5. CYP2D6

A genotyping assay to detect CYP2D6 variants which are responsible for variable drug metabolism capacity observed in patients. Drugs which are metabolized by CYP2D6 include tamoxifen, anti-arrhythmic, antipsychotic, anti-depressant, and beta-blockers. Identification of CYP2D6 variants allow drug treatment to be optimized to avoid adverse drug reaction or therapeutic failure.